As is the case with most poker games, there is not a lot documented about the history of Texas Holdem. The Texas State Legislature has officially recognized Robstown, Texas, as the birthplace of Holdem with the origins of the game dating back to the early 20th century. Holdem didn't really start to take off, however, until it was introduced to the gambling mecca of Las Vegas in the late 1960's by a group of Texan card players including the likes of Amarillo Slim and Doyle Brunson.
At first, the Golden Nugget Casino was the only casino that offered Holdem but in 1969 the professional poker players were invited to play at the entrance to the Dunes Casino on the Las Vegas Strip. This move helped bring Texas Holdem to the forefront and in 1970, Benny and Jack Binion started the first World Series of Poker (“WSOP”) at their casino, Binion's Horseshoe, where within a year the featured game would become No Limit Texas Holdem. Interest in the WSOP has grown dramatically since its inception. In 1972, there were 8 entrants in the Main Event, now the number routinely tops 6,000+ entrants.
In 1998 the movie Rounders came out. The movie, starring Matt Damon, Edward Norton, and John Malkovich was the first movie to ever look at Holdem in depth and the resulting publicity coupled with the emergence of the Internet caused a huge increase in the number of people playing the game. Then in 2002, an unknown amateur player from rural Tennessee won the Main Event, besting a field of over 2,000 players. The players name was iconic in a poker sense... Chris Moneymaker. The fact that Moneymaker won showed the world that anyone truly could have a chance at winning the millions of dollars available at the WSOP.
Moneymaker's win, coupled with the invention of lipstick cameras that allowed viewers to see a player's hole cards, created a poker boom that the gambling world could never have expected. Any place you turned, there was a poker game. You couldn't change the channel without seeing some form of Holdem poker.
It wasn't all rosy for the poker world, however, as in 2006 the United States passed a bill titled the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act (UIGEA) that made it illegal for financial institutions to accept or transfer money to poker sites. The resulting reaction led to a stigma attached to the game and suddenly corporate sponsors, advertisers, and celebrities were shying away from the game. Holdem poker is still more popular than it was any time before the “poker boom” so the future still holds hope for the game.
Source for this information: Wikipedia
The Main Holdem Strategy Index: The Great Game of Holdem